Your thesis or claim must be supported by evidence. The broader your claim is, the more evidence you will need to convince readers that your position is right. There are several reasons this statement is too broad to argue. First, what is included in the category "drugs"? Is the author talking about illegal drug use, recreational drug use which might include alcohol and cigarettes , or all uses of medication in general? Second, in what ways are drugs detrimental?
Is drug use causing deaths and is the author equating deaths from overdoses and deaths from drug related violence? Is drug use changing the moral climate or causing the economy to decline?
Finally, what does the author mean by "society"? Is the author referring only to America or to the global population? Does the author make any distinction between the effects on children and adults? There are just too many questions that the claim leaves open.
The author could not cover all of the topics listed above, yet the generality of the claim leaves all of these possibilities open to debate. In this example the topic of drugs has been narrowed down to illegal drugs and the detriment has been narrowed down to gang violence.
This is a much more manageable topic. This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just the amount of money used but also how the money could actually help to control pollution. This thesis narrows the scope of the argument by specifying not just what the focus of a national anti-pollution campaign should be but also why this is the appropriate focus. Qualifiers such as " typically ," " generally ," " usually ," or " on average " also help to limit the scope of your claim by allowing for the almost inevitable exception to the rule. Claims typically fall into one of four categories.
Thinking about how you want to approach your topic, or, in other words, what type of claim you want to make, is one way to focus your thesis on one particular aspect of your broader topic. Claims of fact or definition: These claims argue about what the definition of something is or whether something is a settled fact. Claims of cause and effect: These claims argue that one person, thing, or event caused another thing or event to occur.
Claims about value: These are claims made of what something is worth, whether we value it or not, how we would rate or categorize something. Claims about solutions or policies: These are claims that argue for or against a certain solution or policy approach to a problem.
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Which type of claim is right for your argument? Which type of thesis or claim you use for your argument will depend on your position and knowledge of the topic, your audience, and the context of your paper. You might want to think about where you imagine your audience to be on this topic and pinpoint where you think the biggest difference in viewpoints might be. Many of the risk factors for sexual violence are the same as for domestic violence.
Risk factors specific to sexual violence perpetration include beliefs in family honor and sexual purity, ideologies of male sexual entitlement and weak legal sanctions for sexual violence. Few interventions to prevent sexual violence have been demonstrated to be effective. School-based programmes to prevent child sexual abuse by teaching children to recognize and avoid potentially sexually abusive situations are run in many parts of the world and appear promising, but require further research.
To achieve lasting change, it is important to enact legislation and develop policies that protect women; address discrimination against women and promote gender equality; and help to move the culture away from violence. Elder maltreatment is a single or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust which causes harm or distress to an older person.
This type of violence constitutes a violation of human rights and includes physical , sexual , psychological , emotional; financial and material abuse; abandonment; neglect ; and serious loss of dignity and respect. Data on the extent of the problem in institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes and other long-term care facilities are scarce. Elder maltreatment can lead to serious physical injuries and long-term psychological consequences. Elder maltreatment is predicted to increase as many countries are experiencing rapidly ageing populations.
Many strategies have been implemented to prevent elder maltreatment and to take action against it and mitigate its consequences including public and professional awareness campaigns, screening of potential victims and abusers , caregiver support interventions e. Their effectiveness has, however, not so far been well-established.
Several rare but painful episodes of assassination , attempted assassination and school shootings at elementary, middle, high schools, as well as colleges and universities in the United States, led to a considerable body of research on ascertainable behaviors of persons who have planned or carried out such attacks.
These studies — investigated what the authors called "targeted violence," described the "path to violence" of those who planned or carried out attacks and laid out suggestions for law enforcement and educators. A major point from these research studies is that targeted violence does not just "come out of the blue". As an anthropological concept, "everyday violence" may refer to the incorporation of different forms of violence mainly political violence into daily practices. In many societies, print media, radio, film, television, and broadcast news reports condition how people conceive violence.
Ordinarily, "We are accustomed to conceiving violence as immediate and explosive, erupting into instant, concentrated visibility. He demonstrates how certain slow moving forms of violence require a different kind of literary approach and narration to become visible to people invested in change and public policy.
Forms of slow violence become relatively invisible due to an assumption that violence should be "spectacular" and "instantaneous" rather than "incremental. Nixon's philosophy "complicates conventional perceptions of violence as a highly visible act that is [plausibly] newsworthy because it is focused around an event, bounded by time, and aimed at a specific body or bodies. The slow impact of long-term repercussions are imperceptible until they show up as, for example, post-traumatic stress or the collapse that visited upon glaciers as a result of long-term climate change effects.
Slow violence studies -- particularly in the 21st century frontiers of the environmental humanities and the digital humanities -- render the "invisible, destructive impacts of neoliberalism " that "stretch across vast spatial and temporal scales" visibile through strategies and discourse that unveil long-term consequences or collapse time scales through animation for readers or viewers to perceive its impact on the poor and other groups.
This is due primarily to the way we conventionally understand and articulate violence as the result of an explosive calamity that erupts in a moment versus incrementally. Slow violence defies global assumptions, conceptions, and language in news reporting that violence erupts into "instant, concentrated visibility. In an interview for the journal Social Text , Nixon explained:.
Environmentalists face a fundamental challenge: How can we devise arresting stories, images, and symbols that capture the pervasive but elusive effects of slow violence?
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Climate change, the thawing cryosphere , toxic drift, deforestation, the radioactive aftermaths of wars, oil spills, acidifying oceans, and a host of other slowly unfolding environmental crises confront us with formidable representational obstacles that hinder efforts to mobilize for change.
All of these processes originate in catastrophic actions, but actions that do not lend themselves to spectacular representation. At the heart of slow violence is the paradox of the long-term emergency. Slow violence studies can be traced to his book released in Studies that are necessarily interdisciplinary and mix old and new, nontraditional media to reimagine the long-term consequences of violence that occurs as glacial rather than catastrophically immediate.
Violence cannot be attributed to a single factor. Its causes are complex and occur at different levels. To represent this complexity, the ecological, or social ecological model is often used. The following four-level version of the ecological model is often used in the study of violence:.
The first level identifies biological and personal factors that influence how individuals behave and increase their likelihood of becoming a victim or perpetrator of violence: demographic characteristics age, education, income , genetics , brain lesions , personality disorders , substance abuse , and a history of experiencing, witnessing, or engaging in violent behaviour. The second level focuses on close relationships, such as those with family and friends. For intimate partner violence, a consistent marker at this level of the model is marital conflict or discord in the relationship.
In elder abuse , important factors are stress due to the nature of the past relationship between the abused person and the care giver. The third level explores the community context—i.itlauto.com/wp-includes/wife/4329-application-after-root.php
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Risk at this level may be affected by factors such as the existence of a local drug trade, the absence of social networks, and concentrated poverty. All these factors have been shown to be important in several types of violence. Finally, the fourth level looks at the broad societal factors that help to create a climate in which violence is encouraged or inhibited: the responsiveness of the criminal justice system, social and cultural norms regarding gender roles or parent-child relationships, income inequality , the strength of the social welfare system, the social acceptability of violence, the availability of weapons, the exposure to violence in mass media, and political instability.
Cross-cultural studies have shown that greater prevalence of corporal punishment of children tends to predict higher levels of violence in societies. For instance, a analysis of pre-industrial societies found that corporal punishment was more prevalent in societies which also had higher rates of homicide, assault, and war. Straus believes that disciplinary spanking forms "the most prevalent and important form of violence in American families", whose effects contribute to several major societal problems, including later domestic violence and crime.
The causes of violent behavior in people are often a topic of research in psychology. Neurobiologist Jan Vodka emphasizes that, for those purposes, "violent behavior is defined as overt and intentional physically aggressive behavior against another person. Based on the idea of human nature, scientists do agree violence is inherent in humans.
Among prehistoric humans, there is archaeological evidence for both contentions of violence and peacefulness as primary characteristics. Since violence is a matter of perception as well as a measurable phenomenon, psychologists have found variability in whether people perceive certain physical acts as "violent".
Violence in The Outsiders Essay Sample
For example, in a state where execution is a legalized punishment we do not typically perceive the executioner as "violent", though we may talk, in a more metaphorical way, of the state acting violently. Likewise, understandings of violence are linked to a perceived aggressor-victim relationship: hence psychologists have shown that people may not recognise defensive use of force as violent, even in cases where the amount of force used is significantly greater than in the original aggression.
The "violent male ape" image is often brought up in discussions of human violence. However, William L. Ury, editor of a book called "We Must Fight! The conclusion is that "we also have lots of natural mechanisms for cooperation, to keep conflict in check, to channel aggression, and to overcome conflict. These are just as natural to us as the aggressive tendencies. The psychiatrist James Gilligan argues that most violent behavior represents an effort to eliminate feelings of shame and humiliation , which he calls "the death of self". In an article entitled "The History of Violence" in The New Republic , Steven Pinker posits that, on average, the amount and cruelty of violence to humans and animals has decreased over the last few centuries.
Pinker's observation of the decline in interpersonal violence echoes the work of Norbert Elias , who attributes the decline to a "civilizing process", in which the state's monopolization of violence, the maintenance of socioeconomic interdependencies or "figurations", and the maintenance of behavioural codes in culture all contribute to the development of individual sensibilities, which increase the repugnance of individuals towards violent acts.
Some scholars disagree with the argument that all violence is decreasing arguing that not all types of violent behaviour are lower now than in the past. They suggest that research typically focuses on lethal violence, often looks at homicide rates of death due to warfare , but ignore the less obvious forms of violence. Kaplan introduces the notion of liberating violence. According to Kaplan, we will observe more violent civil wars in the future, which will be fought due to economic inequalities around the world. The concept of violence normalization, is known as socially sanctioned or structural violence , and is a topic of increasing interest to researchers trying to understand violent behavior.
It has been discussed at length by researchers in sociology ,   medical anthropology ,   psychology ,  philosophy ,  and bioarchaeology.